Dolly Cloning Essay

Cloning
Davenport University


Abstract

Cloning has become a public demand for many reasons. From the published cloning of Dolly, the sheep, the world has become aware of the possibilities cloning has to offer. Throughout history, the demand for cloning has increased. Scientifically experiments have been performed in hopes of perfecting cloning. Cases will be shown to give examples for the various experiments that have been performed in the past. With each experiment, mistakes in the process are noted to show how the evolution is still in the process for cloning. With many trial and errors, the process has come closer to being perfected. Yet, in theory scientifically, the cloning process is not perfect at this time. This paper will show you in detail the scientific facts relating to cloning.


     On July 5, 1996, Dolly was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly was a female sheep and the first noted cloned animal in history. She represented a remarkable landmark in the scientific world for being the first animal to be cloned from a cell of an adult, called a somatic cell. The technique used to create Dolly, was a process called nuclear transfer. ( McLaren A (2000) Science 288 (5472): 1775–80 , Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KH (1997) Nature 385 (6619): 810–3) . Dolly lived a short span of six years (BBC News, Friday, 14 February, 2003). Even with her short life span, Scientific American knew Dolly as “the world’s most famous sheep.” (Lehrman, Sally (July 2008). With Dolly’s arrival came many new concepts and concerns in regards to cloning. Moral issues aside, Dolly’s creation opened the doors for future experiments and research regarding cloning and the benefits it presented.

The donor cell used for cloning Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, hence her being named after a busty country music singer named Dolly Parton (usatoday. July 4, 2006). Dolly was the first experiment to be cloned from a live adult mammal. With Dolly’s cloning, it was discovered the genes in the nucleus of a mature sample differentiated somatic cell were still able of reverting to a un differentiated state. The process and methods are not perfected and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development (Jaenisch R, Hochedlinger K, Eggan K (2005) Novartis Found. Symp. 265: 107–18; discussion 118–28, Rideout WM, Eggan K, Jaenisch R (August 2001). Science (journal) 293 (5532): 1093–8. ) .

   It should be noted the difficulties in the developments of cloning with nuclear transfer are still highly inefficient. Dolly was the only lamb to survive to an adult age from the 277 attempts. Even with the short term of Dolly’s life, her birth is still recognizes as one of the major